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Destricts of Bihar : Rohtas

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History

Rohtas has an old & interesting history. In pre-historic days the plateau region of the district has been the abode of aboriginals whose chief representatives now are the  Bhars, the Cheers and the Oraons . According to some legends the Kherwars were the original settlers in the hilly tracts near Rohtas.The Oraons also claim that they ruled over the area between Rohtas and Patna. The local legend also connects king Sahasrabahu with Sasaram, the headquarter of Rohtas district. It is believed that Sahasrabahu had terrible fight with Saint Parsuram, the legendary Brahmin Protector, as a result of which Sahasrabahu was killed. The term Sahasram is supposed to have been derived from Sahasrabahu and Parsuram. Another legend connects the ROHTAS hill to Rohitashwa, son of Raja Harishchandra, a famous king who was known for his piety and truthfulness.

           The District of ROHTAS formed a part of the Magadh Empire since 6th B.C. to 5TH Century A.D. under the pre Mauryans. The minor rock edict of Emperor Ashok at Chandan Sahid near Sasaram confirmed the Mauryans conquests of this district. In the 7th Century A.D. This district came under the control of Harsha rulers of Kannauj.

The administrative headquarters of the district, Sasaram is a place of historical importance. Another important symbol of national pride are the parallel bridges built over the Sone River – one for road and another for railway. The road bridge (Jawahar Setu built by Gammon India in 1963–65) over Sone was the longest (3061 m) in Asia until it was surpassed by the Mahatma Gandhi setu (5475 m) over the river Ganges at Patna. Nehru Setu, the railway bridge is the second longest railway bridge in India.

The district is also home to the Rohtasgarh fort, which was one of the strongest forts in the medieval age.

The district is currently a part of the Red Corridor.

Geography

Rohtas district occupies an area of 3,851 square kilometres (1,487 sq mi), comparatively equivalent to the Solomon Islands' Malaita Island.

The district has a variety of landscapes within a small area, with flat plains running alongside the Kaimur Range and Rohtas Plateau. The majority of the land is a fertile floodplain of the Son River which is a tributary of the Ganges originating in Madhya Pradesh. The mountains of the Kaimur Range, which is an extension of the Vindhya Range were heavily forested in recent history, however mass deforestation has occurred due to firewood being used as fuel. The area is highly fertile and due to this is densely populated.

Villages in the district include Ganj Bharasara(a under graduate college also belongs to this village)Majhigawan, Tipa, Thumba and Nawadih.Nokha, Rohtas,rajpur Tilouthu, Akbarpur, Nasriganj and Bikramganj are small towns, while Dehri-on-sone and Sasaram are the largest towns.

            1. Formation of District: 10th November 1972

            2. Latitude:    24-30” to 25-20” (North)

            3. Longitude:    83-14” to 83-20” (East)  

            4.  Area:  3847.82 Sq. Km.

            5. Height from Sea Level: 107.78 Meters

            6. Boundaries

                 North :   Bhojpur & Buxar Districts 
                 South :   Plamu & Garwah District     
                 EAST:   Aurangabad & Part of Gaya District   
                 WEST:  Kaimur District

Climate

The climate of the region is sub-tropical and typical of the plains of Northern India, with hot dry summers and cool winters with cold nighttime temperatures. The monsoon is vital for the district as the economy is mainly based on agriculture.

Deforestation has led to climate change and has had an environmental impact, with drought becoming more frequent and temperatures becoming warmer. As recently as the early 1990s, nighttime frost used to be common in the winter, however deforestation in the Kaimur hills has had a negative impact.

Sub-divisions

Rohtas district comprises 3 Sub-divisions:

    Sasaram

    Bikramganj

    Dehri

Economy

Until 1980, Dalmianagar was one of the major industrial cities in India. It had sugar, vegetable oil, cement, paper, and chemical factories (Rohtas Industries) but now they are closed. Dacoities, extortion and interference from the local mafia led to the downfall of this place. In 2008–09 budget establishment of railway factory in Dalmianagar has been passed and the campus of Dalmianagar factory has been taken by railway.

Dehri On Sone is also famous for coal depot. This market brings customers from all over of North India for coal trading. There is one hydropower generation unit which generates 6.6 megawatts of electricity.

In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Rohtas one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the 36 districts in Bihar currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).

Transport

This city is well connected with railway and road. Dehri on sone and Sasaram has big railway station with almost all the major train stops there. This place is well connected with the road as Grant Trunk Road passes through the heart of both of Dehri and Sasaram.Sasaram is well connected with Ara by rail as well as road.

Demographics

According to the 2011 census Rohtas district has a population of 2,962,593,[5] roughly equal to the nation of Armenia or the US state of Mississippi. This gives it a ranking of 127th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 763 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,980 /sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 20.22%.Rohtashas a sex ratio of 914females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 76.59%., which is highest in Bihar.

Flora and fauna

In 1982 Rohtas district became home to the Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary, which has an area of 1,342 km2 (518.1 sq mi).

Tourism

Rohtas Garh

It is situated 5 Kms. west of present block headquarter of Rohtas Block in Dehri Subdivision.It is said to be after the name of Rohitashwa the son of Raja Harishchandra Rohitshwa is said to have settled and built a fort here. However some local tribes say that Rohtas means dry land. Rohtas has a big fort. It was taken into possession by Sher Shah in 1538 A.D.It was the headquarter of Akbarpur, victory of the eastern provinces near the fort. There is a MAJAR (Grave) of Mohammedan saint named Sheikh Shah Babal (Pir).

One kilometer north of Rohtas Fort is Bawan Talab known for ancient temples. As the name indicates 52 ponds surrounded the village the good olden days. But there is no trace of them now. There is an ancient temple of Lord Shiva, locally known as the CHAURASAN MANDIR said to have been built by King Harishchandra.

Sasaram

Head quarter of Rohtas District as well as the Sadar Subdivision Sasaram, the municipal town is a place of historical importance.

The grand chort section of the eastern railway & Grand Trunk Road pass through it. There are several monuments nearby town. It is famous for the Tomb of Sher Shah build towards the middle of the sixteenth century. Hexagonal in shape & build of stone. It is the second heighest tomb in India situted in the middle of a big tank. It is a fine specimen of the pathan architecture & attracts tourists. The tomb of Hasan Khan Suri, father of Sher Shah is also located in the town. This tomb is also known as Sukha Roza.

The Ashok inscription at Chand-tan-pir on a hill near SASARAM is also of historical value.

Shergarh

The village is situated 13 kilometers south of chenari. It was a military cantonment during the regime of Sher Shah. It has a ruin of fortress.

Tarachandi

There is a temple of Goddess Tarachandi and small inscription of Pratap Dhawal on the rock close to the temple of Chandi Devi. Hindus in large number assemble to worship the goddess.

Dhurwan Kund & Gupta Dham

 These two attractive tourist and religious places it can be developed as beautiful natural sites. These sites situated in the Chenari Block of this District.

Bhaluni Dham

There is a famous temple of Goddess Durga, called “Yakshini Bhagwati “. Here is also an ancient temple of God “Shirac Bhankhandi Mahadevan " and situated 7 Kms east of Dinara Block in Bikramganj Sub Division. Large number of devotees assembled to worship the Goddess for benediction.

 Akhorigola

Weaving Industry   (Blanket),Cattle Fair

Dharklandha

There is a math of a saint “Dariyadas: This great figure is counted in the series of Kasir and Dadu. Probably he is the first saint poet of this district. He wrote many religious books are required in India.

Akbarpur

 It is situated at the foot of Kaimur hills 5kms form Rohtas Garh. It is said to name after Mughal ruler Akbar. It is very near to the present block head quarters of Rohtas .It contains the tomb of Malik Wishal Khan, the daroga of Rohtas Garh during the reign of emperor Shahjahan.

Chacha Fhagumal Sahibjee ka Gurudwara

 It is situated in Sasaram and a prominent place for Sikhs.

Dehri

Industrial town of the District, Imp. Railway Junction, Headquarter of Police

Deo Markandey

Situated 18 Kms. East of Nasriganj in Bikramganj Subdivision .It is famous for temple of Lord Vishnu & Surya.

Rehal

It lies in Rohtas Block & is situated at a height of 2400 ft. The village consists mostly of cheroo & kharwar tribes.