...a place to meet with Culture & Tradition

Destricts of Bihar : Jagdishpur

Google Map

 The present district of Bhojpur came into existence in 1992. Earlier this district was the part of old Shahabad district. In the year 1972 Shahabad district was bifurcated in two parts namely Bhojpur and Rohtas. Buxar was a sub-division of old Bhojpur district. In 1992 Buxar became a separate district and rest of Bhojpur district has now three sub-divisions-Ara Sadar, Jagdishpur and Piro. Ara town is the headquarters of the district and also its principal town. The district is bounded on the north by the district of Saran ( Bihar ) and Balia district of Uttar Pradesh; on the south by the district of Rohtas; on the West by the district of Buxar and on the East by the district of Patna, Jahanabad and Arwal.

    Bhojpur district has a close linkage with that of its parent district of Shahabad, which had an old and interesting history. In the pre-historic days also there is evidence of the area being inhabited. The 1961 Census report of Shahabad describes the history of the district in following manner.

    It is said that Ara, the present headquarters of the district derives its name from the Sanskrit word 'ARANYA', which means forest. It suggests that the entire area around modern Ara was heavily forested in old days. According to mythology, sage Vishwamitra, the Guru of RAMA , had his 'Ashram' somewhere in this region.

    The 1961 Census report also describes the early period of the old Shahabad district which includes the present district of Bhojpur as :

    "In the old days, Shahabad formed part of the ancient kingdom of Magadh which also contained portions of the present Patna & Gaya district. Though included in the kingdom of Emperor ASHOKA , the general absence of Buddhists' monuments from a greater part of the district suggests that it remained almost immune from the Buddhist influence of the time”

    "The famous Chinese pilgrim, HIEUN-TSANG, who journeyed through the country in the seventh century A.D., paid a visit to Mo-Ho-Solo in Shahabad. This place has been identified with the present village Masarh, 10 k.m. west of Ara on Ara-Buxar road. The Chinese pilgrim found that the inhabitants were all Brahmins who did not respect the law of Buddha. He, therefore, felt disappointed and did not proceed to any other place in the district."

    "Not much is known about the history of the district after the fall of Guptas. In all probability it relapsed into the hands of the aboriginal tribes and came under control of petty chieftains. The most dominant people during this period were Cheros. They ruled over the greater portion of the district. Then came the Rajputs from Ujjain in the province of Malwa . Raja Bhoj was their king and the term 'Bhojpur' now applicable to the area is derived from him."

    The Medieval period history of this district has been described in the following words :

    "While encamping at Ara in 1529 after his victory over the Afghan rulers, Babar proclaimed his sovereignty over Bihar . In commemoration of this event, the place was called Shahabad, which literally means 'the city of Emperor '. This name was later applied to the Sarkar within which Ara was included and eventually toe entire district."

    Akbar, after his accession, includes the district of Shahabad in his empire, though the control was not very tight. Akbar's General Man Singh, made efforts to organize the revenue administration of the district on a sound footing. But the local chiefs continued to resist. The Rajas of Jagdishpur and Bhojpur defied the Mughals. The Raja of Bhojpur rebelled against Jahangir. His successor Raja Pratap, was done to death by Shahjahan and the Queen was forced to many a muslim courtier. This finally quietened the Bhojpur family but stray troubles continued till the last days of Mughals.

    After this the District had a very uneventful history till 1857 when Kunwar Singh revolted against the Britishers in line with the Mutineers.

The Revolt of 1857

    About the fight of independence of 1857, by the Raja of Jagdishpur, the famous historian Pundit Sunder Lal writes in his history named "Bart Mein Angereji Raj" as follows :

    "On July 25th 1857 , the Indian army of "British Fauz" declared the Independence at Danapur and proceeded to , Jagdishpur in Bhojpur district, Kunwar Singh was the Raja of Jagdishpur at that time, Kunwar Singh was very popular in surrounding areas. At that time he was at the age of 80 years.

    "When the revolutionary army reached Jagdishpur, the old King Kunwar Singh immediately took the command of that army. He reached Ara with this army and captured the English Treasury, released the prisoners from Ara Jail and destroyed English Offices totally.

    "On July 29.1857, Captain Danwar proceeded to Ara with 300 English and 100 Sikh armies. When he reached near Ara, he was attacked by Gorilla fighters of  Kunwar Singh in Mango Garden (kayamnagar) at night. Only 50 persons of British army were survived out of 415 till the morning of 30th July. Captain Danwar was also killed at the same place (Kayamnagar).

    "A big British army led by Major Ayar with cannons proceeded to Ara from the west to help the surrounded British army on Aug, 2nd, 1857 . A big battle took place at Bibiganj (about 5 kms, west of Ara). The English army became successful in this battle and Kunwar Singh was forced to retreat. After 8 days, the captured Ara town and the castle of Ara (Ara house) were freed. Kunwar Singh came back to Jagdishpur and Major Ayer followed him with the victorious army. After the fight of many days on Aug,14, the Kilo of Jagdishpur fell in the hands of Major Ayer."

    "After 8 months fighting with British armies at different  places in Eastern U.P. . Kunwar Singh decided to come back to Jagdishpur via Gazipur. He reached his capital Jagdishpur and again took-over his thrown with the help of another small army collected by his younger brother Amar Singh on April 22, 1858 . Kunwar Singh was forced to fight again within 24 hours of his arrival at Jagdishpur. A fierce battle again took place between Kunwar Singh and Britishers at a distance of one and half miles away from Jagdishpur. This battle had taken place between the night of 22nd and 23rd April, 1853 and was again won by the injured Kunwar Singh"

    "Kunwar Singh regained his thrown of Jagdishpur on 23rd April, 1858 and ruled again till the death. The 23rd April is celebrated at Ara, Jagdishpur and all over the state of Bihar as "Kunwar Singh Vijayotsav Diwas" every year. The old and injured Lion Kunwar Singh died on 26the April 1858 as an independent ruler but before his death he freed his state and the people from the slavery of British rule".

    "After his death, his younger brother Amar Singh took the thrown of Jagdishpur. He also fought with British army at Behia, Hetampur and Dalipur and British army were defeated everywhere. Frustrated with regular defeat General Legend resigned from his post. General Dugles took the charge of British army announced awards to the persons who could bring the head of Amar singh but was not successful in getting Amar Singh in his custody. On 17th Oct. 1858 , the British army surrounded Jagdishpur and attacked from seven points but Amar singh came out of Jagdishpur fighting with his courageous army. The Britishers captured Jagdishpur. Amar Singh surrounded by the British army at "Nounadi" 300 armies of Amar Singh was killed but he again fled with 100 army persons. The Britishers could not catch him but followed long. Once the British army was about to catch the elephant on which Amar Singh was riding but he jumped from the elephant and fled away/ He entered the forests of Kaimur hills. He never accepted the defeat. After entering Kaimur hills, there was no trace of him."

    In this way, the history of 1857, Specially of Jagdishpur and Ara of Bhojpur district is glorious and the people of the district owe their glorious past.

The Quit India Movement

    The history of "Quit India Movement" in 1942 is also written by the blood of the virtuous revolutionaries of this district. Two incidents are very important in the month of September 1942 for this district. Village Lasarhi, 32 kms. south of the district headquarters, Ara was the centre of the underground revolutionaries of Shahabad district. On 15th Sep. 1942 , the British police surrounded the Lasarhi village. The people of not only Lasarhi but of the near-by villages like Dhakani and Chasi bravely faced the bullets of Sten gun and LMGs. In this course 7 men and 1 woman were killed.

    After passing of the Quit India Resolution on 9th Aug, 1942 , the district of Shahabad had seen many protest movement. To accelerate the movement, the revolutionaries of the district decided to hoist the tri-color at Ara collectorate. Sep 28th, 1942 was decided the date by the district administration to deposit the "Role-Cess". On this very day a group of  "Satyagrahi started Satyagrah at collectorate from the village Jagwalia. The group was led by a brave soldier of independence Kavi Kailash of the village Ghoradei. Hiding from the eyes of police, the group reached somehow at Ara collectorate and hoisted the tri-color in the campus of Ara collectorate. The Satyagrahi were brutally beaten-up there. Kavi Kailash was lifted and thrashed on a big stone near Ara collectorate tank. He was also tied with horse and brutally dragged on the roads. Then boiled water was poured over him.

    At last chanting the slogans of "Mahatma Gandhi ki Jai" and " Bharat Mata ki Jai ", the brave son of Bhojpur led his life to the rest and became one important martyr of this district.

  Natural Divisions

 The new Bhojpur districts consists of three sub-divisions, viz., Ara Sadar; Jagdishpur and Piro comprising 14 development blocks stretching over an area of 2,37,526 hectors. The entire strip of land between the river Ganga on the north and the main line of Eastern Railway on the south is low laying deposits of silt from the Ganges almost every year and is extremely fertile. In fact, this region is considered to be the best wheat-growing area in the state of Bihar .

    The district has rivers running almost three sides-North, East, and some part of Southern boundary. The Ganges forms the northern boundary of the district. The low-lying rich alluvial plains in the north-eastern and owe their fertility to the river Ganges . The rivers Chher and Banas fall into the Ganges .

    The Sone is another important river in the district. The Sone enters the state of Bihar at the tri-junction of Palamu  (Jharkhand), Mirzapur (U.P.) and Rohtas( Bihar ). It runs along the southern and eastern boundaries of the district of Bhojpur until it merges in the river Ganges near Maner in Patna district.

    According to the District Statistical Report. There 1244 villages in the district out of which 251 are non-residential and 993 residential. There are 228 Panchayats and 12 revenue circles, 6 Town areas, 22 Police Stations, 5 Sub-Police Stations, 1 Railway Police Station, 7 Out-Post-Police Stations in this district, This report also provides the information about Post and Telegraph, which is as follows :

    In this district, there is one G.P.O. situated at the district headquarters Ara. There are also 41 Sub-Post Offices, 3 Addl, Departmental Post Offices, 252 Addl. Departmental Sub-Post Offices. Altogether 989 villages are covered by these Post Offices. The number of Telegraph Centers in 35 in the district of Bhojpur.

Climate Conditions

    The climate of the district is of moderately extreme type. The hot weather begins about the middle of March, when hot westerly winds begin to blow during the day. The months of April and May are extremely hot. In a normal year, the monsoon sets in by the third week of June and the rains continue with intermissions till about the end of September or the early part of October. The cold weather begins from the month of November and lasts till the beginning of March January is the coldest month when temperature comes down as low as 10 degree centigrade. From the month of April till the first break down of the monsoon, the district experiences occasional thunder-storms also.

Rain Fall

    Rains set in June accompanied by a fall in temperature and increase in humidity. The district experiences maximum rains during the months of July and August. The average rain-fall, in the normal conditions, recorded in these months is in the proximity of 300 mm. The district gets easterly winds from June to September, which brings rains, From October the direction of the winds is reversed and westerly winds blow till May. There is slight rainfall in October, but November and December are quite dry. Some winter rain occurs in January and February.

Irrigation Facilities

    The river Sone and Ganges are the perennial sources of surface water. They can provide irrigation to major portion of agricultural lands. In the "Pre-Zamindari Abolition" days the Zamindars used to maintain "Ahars" and Pynes" which served the purposes of both irrigation and drainage in certain pockets of the district. Ordinary wells also used to be a good source of irrigation.

    The District Statistical Report published by the District Administration in the 2001, 15,493 hectors, and land is irrigated by big Sone canals, 14,940 hector, land is irrigated by middle Sone canals and 18,379 hectors, and land is irrigated by small canals. 2,582 hectors, land is irrigated by Govt. Electronic Tube wells and 2,099 hectors, of land is irrigated by Govt. Tub wells operated by diesel. The area of land irrigated by private Electric Tube wells is 8,263 hectors. And 16999 hectors of land is irrigated by diesel operated private Tube wells 58,586 hectors of land irrigated by other sources or irrigation like Ahars, wells and ponds etc. Thus this statistics shows that 1, 77,341 hectors of land out of 2,37,526 hectors of land of total area is irrigated . It means 74.66 % land of the district is irrigated.

Land use Pattern

    In this district both the irrigated and un-irrigated areas except the small hills are being exploited for cultivation. Even some of the large ponds and "Jhils" which were duck-shooting areas have been de-watered and put to crop and grows "Boro crops". Intensive agriculture is also being attempted by what is popularly known as "Package Program". The Block Development Authorities are also trying to extend cultivation and improve the output. The remodeled Sone Canal System has the objective of bringing in more land under cultivation. Horticulture is spreading and orchards are springing up of all parts.

    The District Statistical Report published by the District Administration of Bhojpur in the year of 2001 shows the area of different crops production i.e. Paddy-1,05,155 hectors, Wheat-67,259 hectors, Maize- 2,779 hectors, Barley-1,154 hectors Gram-5,017 hectors Peas-2,016 hectors, Arhar-919 hectors Masur-8,115 hectors Khesari-8,989 hectors Oil seeds (Sarso) 2,866 hectors Spices 31 hectors Vegetables 5,119 hectors, Fruits 2,651 hectors and Sugar cane 209 hectors.

    This report also published the data of the rate of production, which is provided to the district administration by the State Directorate. It states the rate of production different crops per hectors as follows:

    "Paddy (High yielding irrigated)-3502 Kg. per hectors. Paddy (Locally irrigated) -3330 Kg per hectors, Wheat (High yielding irrigated)-2725 Kg per hectors. Wheat (High yielding un-irrigated)-2707 Kg. per hectors Masur-1047 Kg. per hectors Khesari-986 Kg. Per hectors. Oil seeds (Sarso) 679 Kg. per hectors and Gram 937 Kg. per hectors.

Mines and Minerals

    Mines and minerals resources in new Bhojpur district are very little. The only mineral product in this district is the sand from Sone river. About 40 Kms. length of Sone river forms the part of southern and eastern and eastern boundary of the district of Bhojpur. The only managed sand - collecting centre is Koilwar, which is about 5 Kms. strips. About 35 Kms length is not properly managed to gather the sand.

Industralisation

    After bifurcation of the old Shahabad district in the new district of Bhojpur and Rohtas the large scale industries generally fell in Rohtas district. There are, however, different types of small & cottage industries other than some agro-based industries located in the district of Bhojpur.

    The District Statistical Report shows that between Apr-1992 and Aug-2000, 1085 small tiny and cottage industries were registered with the District Industry Centre, Bhojpur. Altogether the capital invested in these industries is Rs-869.19 Lacs. and 1858 persons are employed in these industries. There is an industrial area located at Gidha (Koilwar) spread in an area of 30-40 acres of land under the Patna Industrial Development Authority. A bottling plant of Indane Gas (LPG) is also started in this area. The development of industries depends on the regular supply of power but the district gets very short supply of the electricity against the required energy. The industrialization of the district badly hampered due to this problem

Films  :

Bhojpuri films have a far and wide viewership. Several film personalities from this region have  made rich contributions to cinema. Mr. Viswanth Shahabadi had made 'GANGA MAIYA TOHEN PIYARI CHADHAIBO' in 1960 which is still today   widely acclaimed. Mr. Janardan Singh of Ara  made 'PIYA NIRMOHIA' with Jai Tilak of Ara as Hero. Sri Ashok Chand Jain and Mr. Laxman Shahabadi have made the film 'GANGA KINARE MORA GAON' in which the latter's songs had been appreciated a lot. Mr. Jai Mohan of Ara was the villain of this film. Similarly many more artist have  worked in films from this region and have made Ara the Hollywood of Bhojpuri films.

Musical Tradition :

The musical tradition of the district has been  rich since  the past and is getting enriched in present times also. Mr. Laxman Shahabadi, Prof Ramnath Pathak and Sri Arvind Krishan of Ara have contributed towards Film songs and music. Ara resident Sarafat Ali has sung with Usha Mangeshkar and Dilraj Kauri for film 'GANGA KAI GAON MAI'.

Literature

Bhojpur has a rich literary lineage. Munshi Sadasukh Lal, Sayed Ishautullah, Lallu lal and Sadal  Mishra ara famous for their work in 'Khari Boli'. From Bhartendu era Akhoury Yashodanad was  as famous as  editor and Sri Shivnandan Sahay  for biography writings. Sri Jainendra Kishor Jain was well known novelist and dramatist. In Dwivedi era Mahamahopadhyay Pundit Sakal Narayan Sharma and Pundit Ramdahin Mishra were famous for prose writing. Acharya Shivpujan Sahay , great story writer, novelist and essayist,was from this area. In Chayavadi era Sri Kedarnath Mishra Prabhat, Sri Ramdayal Pandey, Collector Singh Keshari, Sri Nandkisor  Tiwari and Sri Ramnath Pathak Pranaye were well known for their poetic skills. The list of personalities contributing towards a lot in literary field from this region is long.

Sports

Bhojpur District is progressing very fast in the field of sports . The  District Sports Associations  are actively  promote  games and sports. They  are creating sporting environment for  a large variety of  games with the vitality, interest & involvement of the local people . The leadership provided by some leading name in field of sports and games had raised the position of Bhojpur in the state level and national level.  

There is a very beautiful  stadium namely Veer Kunwar Sigh Stadium, at Ramna , Ara and an Indoor Stadium that has excellent Badmintan court and gymnasium.

Society and Culture

 Library :

A. Jain Sidhant Bhawan :

It has rich collection of books related to Jainism.

 Films  :

Bhojpuri films have a far and wide viewership. Several film personalities from this region have  made rich contributions to cinema. Mr. Viswanth Shahabadi had made 'GANGA MAIYA TOHEN PIYARI CHADHAIBO' in 1960 which is still today   widely acclaimed. Mr. Janardan Singh of Ara  made 'PIYA NIRMOHIA' with Jai Tilak of Ara as Hero. Sri Ashok Chand Jain and Mr. Laxman Shahabadi have made the film 'GANGA KINARE MORA GAON' in which the latter's songs had been appreciated a lot. Mr. Jai Mohan of Ara was the villain of this film. Similarly many more artist have  worked in films from this region and have made Ara the Hollywood of Bhojpuri films.

 Musical Tradition :

The musical tradition of the district has been  rich since  the past and is getting enriched in present times also. Mr. Laxman Shahabadi, Prof Ramnath Pathak and Sri Arvind Krishan of Ara have contributed towards Film songs and music. Ara resident Sarafat Ali has sung with Usha Mangeshkar and Dilraj Kauri for film 'GANGA KAI GAON MAI'.

Literature

Bhojpur has a rich literary lineage. Munshi Sadasukh Lal, Sayed Ishautullah, Lallu lal and Sadal  Mishra ara famous for their work in 'Khari Boli'. From Bhartendu era Akhoury Yashodanad was  as famous as  editor and Sri Shivnandan Sahay  for biography writings. Sri Jainendra Kishor Jain was well known novelist and dramatist. In Dwivedi era Mahamahopadhyay Pundit Sakal Narayan Sharma and Pundit Ramdahin Mishra were famous for prose writing. Acharya Shivpujan Sahay , great story writer, novelist and essayist,was from this area. In Chayavadi era Sri Kedarnath Mishra Prabhat, Sri Ramdayal Pandey, Collector Singh Keshari, Sri Nandkisor  Tiwari and Sri Ramnath Pathak Pranaye were well known for their poetic skills. The list of personalities contributing towards a lot in literary field from this region is long.

Sports

Bhojpur District is progressing very fast in the field of sports . The  District Sports Associations  are actively  promote  games and sports. They  are creating sporting environment for  a large variety of  games with the vitality, interest & involvement of the local people . The leadership provided by some leading name in field of sports and games had raised the position of Bhojpur in the state level and national level. 

There is a very beautiful  stadium namely Veer Kunwar Sigh Stadium, at Ramna , Ara and an Indoor Stadium that has excellent Badmintan court and gymnasium.

Personalities

Late Babu Jagjivan Ram

 He served the country in many capacities eminently including the post of deputy Prime Minister of India.

Late Sri Ram Subhag Singh

 Noted freedom fighter , who led the freedom movement to the common  masses. He was sent to jail in 1943 where he was assaulted badly by the police.

Late Sri Jagnnath Sahay

 Resident of Baghawa Gali of Ara was first person from this district who went to Japan in 1905 for technical education. He returned as Textile Engineer in 1908.

Late Sri Kashinath jee

 This Ara resident had established at Phulwarisharif the first Cloth Mill in the entire state. This Mill was inaugurated in 1936 by Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru.

Late Kavi Kailash

 The great freedom fighter and martyr Kavi Kailash of Ghoradei village had successfully unflung Tiranga dogging at Ara collectorate on 28th sept.1942. He was later killed by Baluchi police near collectorate pond.

Late Sri V.P. Singh

  He was the first Chief Justice of Supreme court of India.

Late Sri Ambika Saran Singh

He was a noted freedom fighter and later served as State Minister of Bihar.

Late Bindeshwari Dubey

 Former Chief Minister of Bihar had also served as central minister of India.

Late Ramanad Tiwari

 He was Home Minister of Bihar.

Late Sri Ram Subhag Singh

 Noted political leader who became Rail Minister of India.

Late A. P. Sharma

  Noted political leader who became Rail minister of India.

Late Tapeshwar Singh

 He was the founder of Co-operative Movements in Bihar.

Late Padmashree Bharat Mishra

 He was noted scholar of Political Science and Literature.

Sri L.M. Rai

Famous economist and writer of several books.

Sri Bashisth Narayan Singh

 Noted Mathematician and scholar of world fame.

Sri N. Pandey

 Retired Judge of Patna High Court and  Lokaykat of Bihar

Sri Banshidhar Ray

Former Deputy Chief Labor Commissioner ( Up Mukhya Shramaukat ) of India.

Important Places

Sun Temple at  Dev :

The Dev village of Tarari block has statue of the SUN GOD besides several other deities. These statues are said to be of 14 th century or even before.

Veer Kunwar Singh Kila , Jagdishpur

The great warrior of 1857 belonged to Jagdishpur. His fort is still there to reminds us of the great son of the soil who fought for the freedom till his last.

Maharaja College, Ara

The present Maharaja college premises is an  important historical site.  There is an entry point of a tunnel that is believed  to be connected with the Jagdishpur fort of Kunwar Singh.

Shahi Masjid :

This five Gumbad mosque, the second of its kind in India was constructed by Shahjahan in 1623 AD. This is situated near Aranya Devi temple.

 Karbala, Mosque of Maulabagh :

This mosque was built around 1817 with Aurangjeb's assistance. It is situated at Maula Bagh muhalla at Ara.

 Aranya Devi Temple

This is famous temple of Aranya Devi  ( Forest Goddess ). She is   said to be the deity goddess of Ara  town  . Here one statue is of ADI SAKTI and the second is established by the PANDAVAs . The temple is very old and draws  many devotees every day. It is situated at  the top of stone boulders.

Chaturvuj Narayan Mandir : This very ancient statue of Laxmi -Narayan is situated at Chaturvuj village of Piro block.

Bhavani Mandir : Chaturvuj Baraon - 13th century statue .

Jagdamba Mandir : Here is an ancient statue of Goddess Jagdamba at Mukundpur village of Charpokhari block.

Parswanath Mandir : It is a century old Jain Temple located at Masadh Village.

Mahamaya  Mandir : This temple is at Ekwari village of Sahar block. This was made during Mughal period.

Mahathin Mai  Mandir : This is located at Bihiya, draws lots of women devotees.

Jain Sidhant Bhawan : It  has a such library which contains unique collection of materials related to Jainism.

Paihari Jee Ka Ashram : It  is an ashram at Dhrampur village at Sahar block.

Lakar Sah Ki Mazar : It is situated at Sahpur, it a famous mazar of a local muslim saint.

Kurwa Shiv : There are some ancient statues related to Banasur. It  is situated in  Shahpur - Billoti Road.

Venkatesh Mandir

 This temple situated at Perhap village has a statue of Southern architectural style.

Shahi Jama Masjid

 This  mosque built by Shersah is located at Garhani Bazzar.  Renovation work is in progress here.

 Aranya Devi :

Aranya Devi Mandir has been located in Ara Town. The Town's name Ara has been  based on this Deity .

Jain Bala Bishram : Jain Bala Bishram is one of the famous site of the town and a girls school also.

Jal Mandir : Jal mandir is one of the finest madir to visit.

Gaytri Mata :

Gayatri Mandir is situated on the main Ara-Bihiya road. It is just near to Ara collectorate. One can visit this place on foot within 10 minutes from Ramana Maidan.

Gangi Nadi : It is a very good site to visit.